Public reports

At any electricity price?

LKAB, SSAB, H2 Green Steel (H2GS) and Fertiberia are planning to produce sponge
iron, steel, ammonia, and fertilizers in bidding zone SE1 in northern Norrland, which will
require approximately 20 TWh of electricity by 2026, 40 TWh in 2030 and 90 TWh in 2050. 

The companies’ myopic investment calculations do not seem to have considered that their own investments, or the investments of other companies, are so extensive that they have a significant impact on the electricity market. If all investments are carried out according to plan, electricity prices will rise too much for the investments to be profitable.

Client: Scandinavian Institute for Public Policy

Profitable or costly?

LKAB and H2 Green Steel plan to produce ”fossil-free” sponge iron and steel in northern Norrland. Both companies’ products will be the most expensive on the markets. LKAB should not proceed with its planned investments and H2GS will most likely not be profitable in the short term.

Client: Scandinavian Institute for Public Policy

Research on public procurement

On behalf of the Swedish Competition Authority, economist David Sundén Ph.D. has conducted a survey of Swedish research on public procurement and public purchasing over the past 15 years. The purpose is, among other things, to identify areas that may be important for understanding and assisting the functioning of public procurement and to identify any obstacles that limit research.

Client: Swedish Competition Authority

From brown to green

SSAB, LKAB, and H2 Green Steel have announced investments in the production of what is marketed as fossil-free steel in northern Norrland. The scale of these investments is unprecedented in Sweden’s history. This report assesses these investments from both a technological and market perspective.

Client: Scandinavian Institute for Public Policy

The pointless alcohol monopoly

Most Swedes stockpile large quantities of alcohol in their homes. Therefore, the Swedish alcohol monopoly cannot reduce consumption. The monopoly should be abolished, and private actors should be allowed to sell alcohol.

Client: Timbro

A reduced excise duty on beer in Ireland

The Irish tax reduction on beer from craft brewers has resulted in a healthier Irish beer market. Microbreweries offer a wide range of beers which complement and compete with the offerings of larger breweries. Moreover, the breweries are well distributed across Ireland, including rural areas. This benefits Irish beer consumers.

Client: Independent craft brewers of Sweden

Fighting smoking with alternative nicotine products

The ability to choose alternative nicotine products has significant potential public health effects. This report estimates the potential number of fewer deaths and cases of cancer that would have been the case if snus had been allowed in the EU.

Client: Haypp 

A lower excise tax for small independent breweries

Small Swedish breweries face distorted competition in the beer market that threatens their profitability. With a differentiated alcohol tax, the competition can be leveled out and provide better conditions for growth.

Client: Independent craft brewers of Sweden

Alcohol cross-border trade during Covid-19

Cross-border alcohol trade between Sweden and its neighboring countries has been largely restricted during Covid-19. This has affected the sales of alcohol at Systembolaget. It is shown that the magnitude of the impact strongly depends on the county and its distance to the Danish or Norwegian border.

Client: The Spirit and Wine Suppliers Association 

The positive effects of competition

It is difficult to accurately measure the positive effects of competition and clearly show the gains of competition for individuals and the society. This report summarises the long-term effects of competition and how it contributes to growth and prosperity.

Client: Swedish Competition Authority

When the monopoly is the buyer

Systembolaget claims that alcohol consumption would increase by 20 to 31 percent if the monopoly were abolished. However, there is only scientific support for the possibility that the Swedish alcohol monopoly may decrease consumption by around 1 percent compared to a completely deregulated market.

Client: Timbro

The deterrent effects of supervision on regulatory compliance in public procurement

Supervision acts as a deterrent by imposing sanctions, and understanding the extent to which it effectively deters non-compliance is crucial in evaluating its impact. This report investigates how the deterrent effects of supervision can be measured in Swedish public procurement. 

Client: Swedish Competition Authority

Tax the sins away

Swedish public health policy has a long tradition of implementing extensive regulations. This report assesses the regulations governing the alcohol, tobacco, and gambling markets in Sweden from an economic efficiency perspective and in light of set political targets.

Client: Expert Group on Public Economics

Impact assessement of capping firm profit on the Swedish welfare markets

In this report, we examine the government’s motives and analyse the socio-economic consequences of introducing a profit limitation in the tax-financed welfare sector. We find that the government’s stated motives are based on false grounds and that a profit limitation carries significant potential negative consequences.

Client: Confederation of Swedish Enterprise

Sectoral expansion of the EU ETS

This report provides a Nordic perspective on the barriers and potential solutions for including new sectors in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), with a particular focus on road transport.

Client: Nordic Council of Ministers

Regulatory barriers for entering the Swedish welfare markets

The purpose of this report is to examine which parts of the regulatory framework aimed at ensuring quality, accessibility, and cost control in welfare services also act as barriers to entry. The investigation is limited to primary healthcare and schools.

Client:  Confederation of Swedish Enterprise

A new deal?

The Swedish gambling market has traditionally been regulated by granting exclusive licenses to certain operators to offer gambling services to Swedish consumers. However, with the emergence of digital gambling services that can be accessed across international borders, the structure of the gambling market has fundamentally changed. This report presents a comprehensive proposal for the re-regulation of the gambling market to adapt to this evolving market structure.

Client: Expert Group on Public Economics

The Use of Economic Instruments in Nordic Environmental Policy

This report provides an overview of the use and change of use of economic instruments in the environmental policies of the Nordic countries.

Client: Nordic Council of Ministers, Denmark

Sustainable assessments – how to assess public sector sustainability

The primary objective of sustainability assessments is to identify indications of long-term unsustainability in public finances and proactively anticipate future challenges. This report aims to bring attention to and evaluate these issues while also highlighting alternative approaches to enhance the quality of sustainability assessments.

Client: Expert Group on Public Economics

Statistical evaluation of the forecasts by The National Institute of Economic Research (KI)

This report evaluates the forecasting accuracy of the National Institute of Economic Research. It conducts a comprehensive analysis of performance measures, tests, and descriptive statistics to assess the precision of their forecasts. The report also compares the performance of the National Institute of Economic Research to other institutions to provide a benchmark for evaluating their forecasting capabilities.

Client: The Swedish Agency for Public Management 

Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen einer Reform der Investmentbesteuerung auf den Kapitalmarkt, den Finanzstandort und die Altersvorsorge in Deutschland

This study evaluates the anticipated impact of a reform of the German investment tax law on capital markets, the financial system, and the German pension systems. It places particular emphasis on assessing the competitiveness of the German financial sector in comparison to other financial centers and examines any resulting corporate relocations. 

Client: Bundesministerium der Finanzen, Deutschland  

Handling environmental impacts and market failures in economic macro models

How do economic macro models address environmental policy issues, and can they potentially address them? This report  explores this question and provides an overview of how climate and environment are integrated into various foreign models. Additionally, the report examines how key Danish economic macro models handle environmental policy issues. 

Client: Miljøstyrelsen, Danmark

Regulation and productivity in the private service sectors

Denmark has experienced, and is still experiencing, a slow productivity growth. There is a potential for productivity improvements in many industries, but the main problems are found in the private service sector.

Client: Danish Productivity Commission, Danmark